December 18, 2014

IPE Exams - Inter First Year Botany Imp Questions for AP and TS Students

Q: Explain binomial nomenclature.
A: Binomial nomenclature is system of providing a name to living organisms with two components.
- It was first introduced by Gaspard Bauhin and popularized by Carolus Von Linnaeus through his book, 'Species Plantarum'.
- The scientific or biological names are generally in Latin and written in italics.
- The ICBN (International code for Botanical Nomenclature) lays down principles for naming the plants.
- In Binomial nomenclature every plant will have a name with two words. The first word is 'genus' and the second 'species'.
- Genus is a noun and always begins with a capital letter. Species is an adjective and always begins with a small letter.
- Name of the author may be written after the specific epithet.
Ex: Mango in binomial system is written as Mangifera indica Linn. Mangifera is the genus and indica is the species.

Q: Write the role of fungi in our daily life.
A: Fungi play both useful as well as harmful roles in our daily life. Some of the uses of fungi are:
- Fungi like yeast (Saccharomyces cervisiae) are used in preparation of bread and beer.
- Fungi like Pencillium are used for preparation of antibiotics.
- Fungi are heterotrophic decomposers of the soil which are very important for recycling of elements.
- Fungi like mushrooms, morels and truffles are good source of nutrients and are used as food.
- Fungi like Neurospora are used in biochemical and genetic research.
- Some fungi like Trichoderma are used in agriculture.
(Note: At least two)
- Some of the harmful effects of fungi are:
- They cause spoilage of food items and pickles.
Ex: Rhizopus (bread mold).
- They cause diseases on plants like red rot in sugarcane, tikka disease in groundnut etc.

Q: Explain in brief the scope of Botany in relation to agriculture, horticulture and medicine.
A: Knowledge of botany leads to experiments in hybridization and genetic engineering.
- Knowledge of plant breeding helps to develop hybrid varieties of rice, wheat, sugarcane etc.
- Mineral nutrition, plant hormones, seed dormancy, plant pathology etc. are studied in botany and help in improving crops, and crop yields.
- A knowledge of plant pathology helps in identification, prevention and eradication of plant diseases.
- Increasing the shelf-life of vegetables and leafy vegetables, artificial ripening of fruits is possible with plant growth hormones.
- Botany helps in development of industries like cotton, paper, pharmacy, sugar etc.
- Medicinal plants are used in human and animal healthcare.
- Plant science is the basis for ayurvedic pharmacies.

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