January 6, 2014

Senior Inter Botany Important Questions for 2 Marks

Q: What is meant by 'hidden anger'?
A: Common man can not afford to buy enough fruits, vegetables, legumes, fish and meat.
So he suffers from micronutrients, proteins and vitamin deficiencies. It is called hidden anger.

Q: Why are plants obtained by protoplast fusion called somatic hybrids?
A: A hybrid is obtained, generally from compatible gamets from different species of the
same genus. If protoplasts of from different varieties of plants with desirable characters are fused and hybrid is obtained, it is called somatic hybridisation as protoblasts belong to vegetative cells. The hydbrid is called somatic hybrid.

Q: What is protoplast fusion?
A: A plant cell without cell wall is called protoplast. The cell wall is digested with cellulase and pectase. It is naked. Then 2 protoplasts of different plants with desirable characters are brought together and can be fused. It is called protoplast fusion.

Q: What is emasculation? Why and when it is done?
A: The removal of stamens in a bisexual flower in bud condition is called emasculation.
Why? To make it a female parent in hybridisation.
When? It should be done in bud condition.

Q: Give 2 important contributions of Dr. M.S Swaminathan?
A: He developed short-duration, high-yielding varieties of rice including scented
Basmathi.
He is known for the collaboration with Norman Borlaug through the introduction of
Sonalika and Kalyan Sona wheat varieties which were high-yielding and disease
resistant.
He is also the initiator of Lab-to-land and food security programme.

Q: Discuss the 2 main limitations of plant hybridisation programme.
A: The desired characters have to be combined from 2 plants (parents) of different
genotype. This is possible by cross hybridising the 2 parents to produce hybrids that
genetically combine the desired characters in one plant.

It is a time-consuming and tedious process because only one in a few hundred to a thousand crosses shows the desirable combination.

Q: Which 2 species of sugarcane were crossed for better yield?
A: Saccharum barberi variety of North India and Saccharum officinarum variety of South
India were crossed for better yield.

Q: Why does 'Swiss cheese' have big holes? Name the bacteria responsible for it.
A: Large holes in 'Swiss cheese' are due to the production of large amount of CO2 during fermentation. The bacteria responsible for it is Propionibacterium sharmanii.

Q: What are fermentors?
A: Fermentors are very large vessels used in industries in which microbes are grown to
synthesise a number of products like beverages and antibiotics.

Q: Name a microbe used for statin production. How do statins lower blood cholesterol level?
A: Statin is produced from the yeast Monascus purpureus. It acts as competitive inhibitor with the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of cholesterol. Thus blood
cholesterol level is reduced.

Q: Why do you prefer to call secondary waste water treatment as biological treatment?
A: Major part of the organic matter is effluent in the aeration tank is consumed by aerobic microbes (flocs). The sediment, i.e. activated sludge of the settling tank when pumped into anaerobic sludge digester, anaerobic bacteria digest bacteria and fungi in the sludge. Thus it is a biological treatment.

Q: How has the discovery of antibiotics helped mankind in the field of medicine?
A: Pencillin, the first antibiotic was extensively used to treat American soldiers wounded in World War II. Other antibiotics are helpful in the treatment of Plague, Wooping cough, Diphtheria and leprosy and several dreadful diseases. We can not imagine a world without antibiotics.

Q: Why are cyanobacteria considered useful in paddy fields?
A: Cyanobacteria are green, autotrophic, aquatic and also terrestrial. As Rice is semi
aquatic cyanobacteria are considered useful in paddy fields as biofertiliser.

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